Control of Variable Watermilfoil in Bashan Lake, CT with 2,4-D: Monitoring of Lake and Well Water.

Bugbee, Gregory J. and White, Jason C. and Krol, Walter J. (2003) Control of Variable Watermilfoil in Bashan Lake, CT with 2,4-D: Monitoring of Lake and Well Water. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management, 41, pp. 18-25.

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Variable watermilfoil (Myriophyllum heterophyllum Michx.) has recently become a problem in Bashan Lake, East Haddam, CT, USA. By 1998, approximately 4 ha of the 110 ha lake was covered with variable watermilfoil. In 1999, the milfoil was spot treated with Aquacide®, an 18% active ingredient of the sodium salt of 2,4-D [(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid], applied at a rate of 114 kg/ha. Aquacide® was used because labeling regarding domestic water intakes and irrigation limitations prevented the use of Navigate® or AquaKleen®, a 19% active ingredient of the butoxyethyl ester of 2,4-D. Variable watermilfoil was partially controlled in shallow protected coves but little control occurred in deeper more exposed locations. 2,4-D levels in the treatment sites were lower than desired and offsite dilution was rapid. In 2000, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) issued a special local need (SLN) registration to allow the use of Navigate ® or AquaKleen® in lakes with potable and irrigation water intakes. Navigate® was applied at a rate of 227 kg/ha to the same areas as treated in 1999. An additional 2 ha of variable watermilfoil was treated with Navigate® in 2001, and 0.4 ha was treated in mid-September. Dilution of the 2,4-D ester formulation to untreated areas was slower than with the salt formulation. Concentrations of 2,4-D exceeded 1000 μg/ L in several lake water samples in 2000 but not 2001. Nearly all of the treated variable watermilfoil was controlled in both years. The mid-September treatment appeared as effective as the spring and early summer treatments. Testing of homeowner wells in all 3 years found no detectable levels of 2,4-D.(PDF contains 8 pages.)

Item Type: Article
Title: Control of Variable Watermilfoil in Bashan Lake, CT with 2,4-D: Monitoring of Lake and Well Water.
Personal Creator/Author:
Bugbee, Gregory J.
White, Jason C.
Krol, Walter J.
Refereed: Yes
Journal or Publication Title: Journal of Aquatic Plant Management
Volume: 41
Page Range: pp. 18-25
Date: 2003
Latitude: 41.4895
Longitude: -72.4118
Issuing Agency: Aquatic Plant Management Society, Inc.
Additional Information: January 2003
Uncontrolled Keywords: Myriophyllum heterophyllum, 2,4-D, Nonnative invasive weeds, Aquatic herbicide residues; Bashan Lake; Connecticut
Subjects: Management
Item ID: 1635
Depositing User: Stephanie Haas
Date Deposited: 07 Nov 2008 00:23
Last Modified: 29 Sep 2011 20:16

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