Sexual Reproduction and Early Development in the Estuarine Sea Anemone, Nematostella vectensis Stephenson, 1935

Uhlinger, Kevin Robert (1997) Sexual Reproduction and Early Development in the Estuarine Sea Anemone, Nematostella vectensis Stephenson, 1935. PhD Thesis, University of California, Davis, 113pp.

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Abstract

This dissertation: 1) determines the factor(s) responsible for spawning induction in NematosteJla vectensis; 2) isolates, describes, and documents the source of jelly from egg masses of N. vectensis; and 3) describes N. vectensis' early development. Namatostella vectensis were maintained on a 7-day mussel feeding/water change regime over 159 days. Within 36 hours of mussel feeding/water change. 69.1% of females and 78.5% of males spawned reliably. Through manipulation of feeding, water change, oxygen and nitrogenous waste concentrations, spawning induction was found to be triggered by the oxygen concentration associated with water change, and not by feeding. Ammonia, anemones' major waste product, inhibited this induction in a concentration-dependent manner. Female N. vectensis release eggs in a persistent jellied egg mass which is unique among the Actiniaria. The major component of this egg mass jelly was a positive periodic acid-Schiffs staining, 39.5-40.5 kD glycoprotein. Antibodies developed in rabbits against this glycoprotein bound to jelly of intact egg masses and to granules (~ 2.8 IJm in diameter) present in female anemone mesenteries and their associated filaments. Antibodies did not label male tissues. Nematostella vecfensis embryos underwent first karyokinesis -60 minutes following the addition of sperm to eggs. Second nuclear division took place, followed by first cleavage, 90-120 minutes later. Each of the 4 blastomeres that resulted from first cleavage contained a single nucleus. Arrangement of these blastomeres ranged from radial to pseudospiral. Embryonic development was both asynchronous and holoblastic. Following formation of the 4-cell stage, 71% of embryos proceeded to cleave again to form an 8-cell stage. In each of the remaining 29% of embryos, a fusion of from 2-4 blastomeres resulted in 4 possible patterns which had no affect on either cleavage interval timing or subsequent development. The fusion event was not due to ooplasmic segregation. Blastomeres isolated from 4-celled embryos were regulative and developed into normal planula larvae and juvenile anemones that were 1/4 the size of those that developed from intact 4-celled embryos. Embryos exhibiting the fusion phenomenon were examined at the fine structural level. The fusion phenomenon resulted in formation of a secondary syncytium and was not a mere compaction of blastomeres.

Item Type: Thesis
Title: Sexual Reproduction and Early Development in the Estuarine Sea Anemone, Nematostella vectensis Stephenson, 1935
Personal Creator/Author:
CreatorsEmail
Uhlinger, Kevin Robert kuhlinger@gmail.com
Number of Pages: 113
Date: 1997
Department: Department of Zoology
Institution: University of California, Davis
Additional Information: The dissertation contains 9 pages of photographs. These are included in the dissertation, but those are B&W and at relatively low resolution. They were then re-scanned at high-resolution grayscale or color (600 dpi TIFF). A separate file with 300 dpi jpg versions of the images is here. If even higher resolution versions are needed, contact the Miller Library at Hopkins Marine Station.
Subjects: Ecology
Biology
Item ID: 2554
Depositing User: Joe Wible
Date Deposited: 04 Aug 2009 12:14
Last Modified: 29 Sep 2011 18:52
URI: http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/2554

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