Whales and Sonar: Environmental Exemptions for the Navy's Mid-Frequency Active Sonar Training.

Alexander, Kristina (2008) Whales and Sonar: Environmental Exemptions for the Navy's Mid-Frequency Active Sonar Training. Fort Belvoir, VA, Defense Technical Information Center, (CRS Report for Congress, RL3440)

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Abstract

Mid-frequency active (MFA) sonar emits pulses of sound from an underwater transmitter to help determine the size, distance, and speed of objects. The sound waves bounce off objects and reflect back to underwater acoustic receivers as an echo. MFA sonar has been used since World War II, and the Navy indicates it is the only reliable way to track submarines, especially more recently designed submarines that operate more quietly, making them more difficult to detect. Scientists have asserted that sonar may harm certain marine mammals under certain conditions, especially beaked whales. Depending on the exposure, they believe that sonar may damage the ears of the mammals, causing hemorrhaging and/or disorientation. The Navy agrees that the sonar may harm some marine mammals, but says it has taken protective measures so that animals are not harmed. (PDF contains 20 pages)

Item Type: Monograph or Serial Issue
Title: Whales and Sonar: Environmental Exemptions for the Navy's Mid-Frequency Active Sonar Training.
Personal Creator/Author:
CreatorsEmail
Alexander, Kristina
Series Name: CRS Report for Congress
Number: RL3440
Date: 2008
Publisher: Defense Technical Information Center
Place of Publication: Fort Belvoir, VA
Uncontrolled Keywords: Acoustic detection and detectors; Whales; Sonar; Sound; Transmitters; Naval operations; Environmental law; Physiological disorientation; Acoustic detectors; Mammals; Velocity; Underwater acoustics; Library of Congress Congressional Research Service
Subjects: Conservation
Law
Pollution
Biology
Engineering
Environment
Policies
Item ID: 3562
Depositing User: Joe Wible
Date Deposited: 21 Jun 2010 08:49
Last Modified: 29 Sep 2011 17:12
URI: http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/3562

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