Panter, Jonathan and May, Andrew
Rapid changes in the vegetation of a shallow pond in Epping Forest, related to recent droughts.
Freshwater Forum, 8,
Over much of Britain, 1995 and 1996 have been perceived as drought years. To evaluate the impact that local climatic conditions are having upon successional changes in higher vegetation (macrophytes), Speakmans Pond in Epping Forest was surveyed and mapped in 1996. The results are related to previous vegetation surveys carried out in 1989 and 1991. In 1989 the dominant marginal vegetation was floating sweet-grass Glyceria fluitans, which also covered a major part of the main body of the pond. Other abundant species included soft rush Juncus effusus, reed mace Typha latifolia and yellow flag Iris pseudocorus. A small (central) area of open water contained bladderwort Utricularia vulgaris and white water-lily Nymphaea alba. A similar plant coverage was found in 1991, with a dominance of floating sweet-grass along the shallow eastern edge. A marked change in the pond was found during the 1996 survey of vegetation in July, when the pool was dry. The major plant cover now consisted of creeping bent Agrostis stolonifera, with isolated clumps of Yorkshire fog Holcus lanatus around the edges; both are terrestrial grasses found on land surrounding the pond. Rushes (Juncus) had increased their distribution round the margins of the pond, and the patch of yellow flag noted in 1989 and 1991 was not found in 1996. The deeper trenches were also dry, but a small patch of white water-lily remained adjacent to one of the trenches.
||Rapid changes in the vegetation of a shallow pond in Epping Forest, related to recent droughts
|Journal or Publication Title:
||Freshwater Biological Association
||Aquatic plants; Drought resistance; Temporary ponds; England; Speakmans Pond
Hardy B Schwamm
||25 Nov 2010 12:26
||29 Sep 2011 16:14
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