The ionic composition of surface waters in the English Lake District, related to bedrock geology, with some singular facts and speculation on the existence of mineral-rich groundwaters.
Freshwater Forum, 11,
This article is based on a survey of tarns conducted mainly in the summers of 1983 to 1985, plus a survey made in the winter of 1985, in which streams were sampled on the wide variety of rock-types occurring on the fringes of the Lake District. Differences in composition of major ions and their concentrations in the surface waters of Cumbria reflect the complex geological structure of the region. At altitudes above 300 m, on Borrowdale Volcanics and Skiddaw Slates, surface waters are derived from atmospheric precipitation, with additional inputs of some ions - especially calcium and bicarbonate - from catchment rocks and soils. In some of the low-lying large lakes on the fringes of the central fells, water composition is also dominated by inputs from upper catchments; examples are Wastwater, Ullswater and Haweswater. However in other lakes there is evidence (Derwentwater and Bassenthwaite Lake) of inputs from saline groundwater.
||The ionic composition of surface waters in the English Lake District, related to bedrock geology, with some singular facts and speculation on the existence of mineral-rich groundwaters
|Journal or Publication Title:
||Freshwater Biological Association
||anions; cations; chlorides; freshwater lakes; ground water; ion transport; nitrates; potassium; sodium; sulphates; water exchange; England; Cumbria
Hardy B Schwamm
||26 Nov 2010 12:41
||29 Sep 2011 16:12
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