Molecular biomarkers and toxic consequences of impact by organic pollution in aquatic organisms

Livingston, D.R. and Förlin, L. and George, S.G. (1994) Molecular biomarkers and toxic consequences of impact by organic pollution in aquatic organisms. In: Sutcliffe, D.W. (ed.) Water quality & stress indicators in marine and freshwater systems: linking levels of organisation. Ambleside, UK, Freshwater Biological Association, pp. 154-171. (FBA Special Publications,4)

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Abstract

Organic contaminants are readily bioaccumulated by aquatic organisms. Exposure to and toxic effects of contaminants can be measured in terms of the biochemical responses of the organisms (i.e. molecular biomarkers). The hepatic biotransformation enzyme cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) in vertebrates is specifically induced by organic contaminants such as aromatic hydrocarbons, PCBs and dioxins, and is involved in chemical carcinogenesis via catalysis of the covalent binding of organic contaminants to DNA (DNA-adducts). Hepatic CYP1A induction has been used extensively and successfully as a biomarker of organic contaminant exposure in fish. Fewer but equally encouraging studies in fish have used hepatic bulky, hydrophobic DNA-adducts as biomarkers of organic contaminant damage. Much less is known of the situation in marine invertebrates, but a CYPlA-like enzyme with limited inducibility and some potential for biomarker application is indicated. Stimulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is another potential mechanism of organic contaminant-mediated DNA and other damage in aquatic organisms. A combination of antioxidant (enzymes, scavengers) and pro-oxidant (oxidised DNA bases, lipid peroxidation) measurements may have potential as a biomarker of organic contaminant exposure (particularly those chemicals which do not induce CYP1A) and/or oxidative stress, but more studies are required. Both CYP1A- and ROS-mediated toxicity are indicated to result in higher order deleterious effects, including cancer and other aspects of animal fitness.

Item Type: Book Section
Title: Molecular biomarkers and toxic consequences of impact by organic pollution in aquatic organisms
Personal Creator/Author:
CreatorsEmail
Livingston, D.R.
Förlin, L.
George, S.G.
Title of Book: Water quality & stress indicators in marine and freshwater systems: linking levels of organisation
Editors:
EditorsEmail
Sutcliffe, D.W.
Refereed: No
Series Name: FBA Special Publications
Number: 4
Page Range: pp. 154-171
Date: 1994
Publisher: Freshwater Biological Association
Place of Publication: Ambleside, UK
ISBN: 0-900386-53-3
Issuing Agency: Freshwater Biological Association
Uncontrolled Keywords: Biomarkers; Toxicity; Aquatic organisms; Biological pollutants; Enzymes; Hydrocarbons; Mutagens; Pollutants; Animal diseases; Fish
Subjects: Biology
Environment
Pollution
Item ID: 5314
Depositing User: Hardy B Schwamm
Date Deposited: 11 May 2011 12:03
Last Modified: 29 Sep 2011 15:06
Related URLs:
URI: http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/5314

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