Biology and Management of the American Shad and Status of the Fisheries, Atlantic Coast of the United States, 1960

Walburg, Charles H. and Nichols, Paul R. (1967) Biology and Management of the American Shad and Status of the Fisheries, Atlantic Coast of the United States, 1960. Washington, D.C. , United States Department of the Interior, 105pp. (United States Fish and Wildlife Service Special Scientific Report-Fisheries, 550)

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Abstract

This paper summarizes current information on the American shad, Alosa sapidissima, and describes the species and its fishery. Emphasis is placed on (1) life history of the fish, (2) condition of the fishery by State and water areas in 1960 compared to 1896 when the last comprehensive description was made, (3) factors responsible for decline in abundance, and (4) management measures. The shad fishery has changed little over the past three-quarters of a century, except in magnitude of yield. Types of shad-fishing gear have remained relatively unchanged, but many improvements have been made in fishing techniques, mostly to achieve economy. In 1896 the estimated catch was more than 50 million pounds. New Jersey ranked first in production with about 14 million pounds, and Virginia second with 11 million pounds. In 1960 the estimated catch was slightly more than 8 million pounds. Maryland ranked first in production with slightly more than 1.5 million pounds, Virginia second with slightly less than 1.4 million pounds, and North Carolina third with about 1.3 million pounds. Biological and economic factors blamed for the decline in shad abundance, such as physical changes in the environment, construction of dams, pollution, over-fishing, and natural cycles of abundance, are discussed. Also discussed are methods used for the rehabilitation and management of the fishery, such as artificial propagation, installation of fish-passage facilities at impoundments, and fishing regulations. With our present knowledge, we can manage individual shad populations; but, we probably cannot restore the shad to its former peak of abundance.

Item Type: Monograph or Serial Issue
Title: Biology and Management of the American Shad and Status of the Fisheries, Atlantic Coast of the United States, 1960
Personal Creator/Author:
CreatorsEmail
Walburg, Charles H.
Nichols, Paul R.
Series Name: United States Fish and Wildlife Service Special Scientific Report-Fisheries
Number: 550
Number of Pages: 105
Date: 1967
Publisher: United States Department of the Interior
Place of Publication: Washington, D.C.
Issuing Agency: United States Fish and Wildlife Service
Uncontrolled Keywords: American shad; Life history; Atlantic coast; Alosa sapidissima; Age and growth; Mortality;
Subjects: Biology
Fisheries
Management
Item ID: 7934
Depositing User: Patti M. Marraro
Date Deposited: 31 Jan 2012 13:39
Last Modified: 31 Jan 2012 13:41
URI: http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/7934

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