Fish pass design - criteria for the design and approval of fish passes and other structures to facilitate the passage of migratory fish in rivers

Beach, M.H. (1984) Fish pass design - criteria for the design and approval of fish passes and other structures to facilitate the passage of migratory fish in rivers. Lowestoft, UK, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, 44pp.

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Abstract

Many of British rivers hold stocks of salmon (Salmo salar L.) and sea trout (Salmo trutta L.) and during most of the year some of the adult fish migrate upstream to the head waters where, with the advent of winter, they will eventually spawn. For a variety of reasons, including the generation of power for milling, improving navigation and measuring water flow, man has put obstacles in the way of migratory fish which have added to those already provided by nature in the shape of rapids and waterfalls. While both salmon and sea trout, particularly the former, are capable of spectacular leaps the movement of fish over man-made and natural obstacles can be helped, or even made possible, by the judicious use of fish passes. These are designed to give the fish an easier route over or round an obstacle by allowing it to overcome the water head difference in a series of stages ('pool and traverse' fish pass) or by reducing the water velocity in a sloping channel (Denil fish pass). Salmon and sea trout make their spawning runs at different flow conditions, salmon preferring much higher water flows than sea trout. Hence the design of fish passes requires an understanding of the swimming ability of fish (speed and endurance) and the effect of water temperature on this ability. Also the unique features of each site must be appreciated to enable the pass to be positioned so that its entrance is readily located. As well as salmon and sea trout, rivers often have stocks of coarse fish and eels. Coarse fish migrations are generally local in character and although some obstructions such as weirs may allow downstream passages only, they do not cause a significant problem. Eels, like salmon and sea trout, travel both up and down river during the course of their life histories. However, the climbing power of elvers is legendary and it is not normally necessary to offer them help, while adult silver eels migrate at times of high water flow when downstream movement is comparatively easy: for these reasons neither coarse fish nor eels are considered further. The provision of fish passes is, in many instances, mandatory under the Salmon and Freshwater Fisheries Act 1975. This report is intended for those involved in the planning, siting, construction and operation of fish passes and is written to clarify the hydraulic problems for the biologist and the biological problems for the engineer. It is also intended to explain the criteria by which the design of an individual pass is assessed for Ministerial Approval.

Item Type: Monograph or Serial Issue
Title: Fish pass design - criteria for the design and approval of fish passes and other structures to facilitate the passage of migratory fish in rivers
Personal Creator/Author:
CreatorsEmail
Beach, M.H.
Number of Pages: 44
Date: 1984
Publisher: Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food
Place of Publication: Lowestoft, UK
Funders: Environment Agency Archives North West
Contact Email Address: dis@fba.org.uk
Issuing Agency: Environment Agency, UK (Freshwater Biological Association)
Additional Information: Fisheries Research Technical Report No. 78
Uncontrolled Keywords: UK; River fisheries; Freshwater fish; Migratory species; Hydraulic engineering; Design; Fishery management; Fishways
Subjects: Ecology
Fisheries
Limnology
Item ID: 8065
Depositing User: Hardy B Schwamm
Date Deposited: 25 Feb 2012 12:01
Last Modified: 25 Feb 2012 12:01
URI: http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/8065

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