MacKenzie, Jr., Clyde L. (2005) Removal of Sea Lettuce, Ulva spp., in Estuaries to Improve the Environments for Invertebrates, Fish, Wading Birds, and Eelgrass, Zostera marina. Marine Fisheries Review, 67(4), pp. 1-8.
Mats (biomasses) of macroalgae, i.e. Ulva spp., Enteromorpha spp., Graciolaria spp., and Cladophora spp., have increased markedly over the past 50 years, and they cover much larger areas than they once did in many estuaries of the world. The increases are due to large inputs of pollutants, mainly nitrates. During the warm months, the mats lie loosely on shallow sand and mud flats mostly along shorelines. Ulva lactuca overwinters as buds attached to shells and stones, and in the spring it grows as thalli (leaf fronds). Mats eventually form that are several thalli thick. Few macroinvertebrates grow on the upper surfaces of their thalli due to toxins they produce, and few can survive beneath them. The fish, crabs, and wading birds that once used the flats to feed on the macroinvertebrates are denied these feeding grounds. The mats also grow over and kill mollusks and eelgrass, Zostera marina. An experiment was undertaken which showed that two removals of U. lactuca in a summer from a shallow flat in an estuarine cove maintained the bottom almost free of it.
|Item Type: ||Article|
|Title: ||Removal of Sea Lettuce, Ulva spp., in Estuaries to Improve the Environments for Invertebrates, Fish, Wading Birds, and Eelgrass, Zostera marina|
|Personal Creator/Author: |
|MacKenzie, Jr., Clyde L.|
|Journal or Publication Title: ||Marine Fisheries Review|
|Page Range: ||pp. 1-8|
|Issuing Agency: ||United States National Marine Fisheries Service|
|Item ID: ||9711|
|Depositing User: ||Patti M. Marraro|
|Date Deposited: ||14 Aug 2012 18:51|
|Last Modified: ||14 Aug 2012 18:51|
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